Frequently Asked Questions


What is Infertility?

Infertility is defined as failure to conceive following at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse.

What causes infertility?

Infertility can result simply from not timing ovulation (release of an egg) with intercourse. However, there may be medical reasons for infertility, for example, a female factor such as blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). Low sperm count or a combination of both male and female factors may also take place simultaneously. The age of the female, in particular, is also an important consideration since fertility reduces with advancing years.

If infertility is not treated and regular intercourse is taking place, it is possible that conception can take place?

Yes. Provided a sperm can meet an egg. However, if there is a clear reason for infertility, treatment should be sought.

What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?

ART embraces all infertility treatments in which both eggs and sperms are manipulated.

What happens at the initial consultation?

Your first contact with the Nordica Fertility Centre, Lagos may be a telephone call to arrange appointment or an informal visit to meet one of our nursing staff who will welcome you to the clinic and discuss how the centre may be able to offer you help.
Arrangements may be made for your partner to have a semen analysis before consultation, the results of which are usually available in half an hour. Your first consultation with the specialist may last for up to an hour. During this time, you and your partner will have the opportunity to discuss your medical history and the various options open to you.

What will the treatment include?

We are most anxious to stress that you are in control of your treatment. Our role is to discuss options and then carry out treatment that has been agreed taking into account al relevant factors. You will not be encouraged to undergo treatment that you do not feel comfortable with or you cannot afford.
Throughout the whole of your treatment you will be encouraged to discuss your current situation and future options with the centre's specialists and there is no obligation to continue with the treatment plan.

Does ART damage the ovaries?

There is no evidence to suggest that any aspect of ART damages the ovaries. There is one report that suggests that infertile women who take fertility drugs and do not get pregnant have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. However, the study did not collect information on the type of drug used, and the control (comparison) population may not have been selected accurately. The fertility drugs used n ART have been in use over 30 years, and other studies have suggested no increased risk. In most cases, the age of menopause does not appear to be altered after ovarian stimulation.

Why is the success rate with ART so low?

Studies of human reproduction indicate that for a couple with proven fertility, the likelihood of conception is only 20% per month. ART affords couples with infertility factors similar or slightly improved chances for conception.

Is there an increased chance of birth defects if I become pregnant through ART?

No. The risk of congenital anomalies in children conceived through ART is the same as the risk in the general population. Chromosome abnormalities, such as Down's syndrome also occur at a rate similar to the general population.

How many embryos should I have transferred back?

The objective or infertility treatment should be the birth of a single, healthy child. Many of the treatment options presented to infertile couples, however, are associated with high risk of multiple gestation. Moreover, many couples view multiple gestation as desirable and unaware of the risks they pose to both mother and babies. Couples should understand those potential risks before starting treatment. The ability to limit the number of embryos or eggs transferred is an effective approach to limit multiple pregnancies. At Nordica Fertility Centre, Lagos, we transfer 2-3 embryos.

How many days does the entire procedure take?

The entire procedure takes approximately six weeks. However, we only need to see you intensively over a two-week period.

Can we have intercourse while attempting ART?

Yes. We recommend that the man abstain from ejaculating for at least 48 hours preceding egg retrieval. This precaution assures that the semen sample of ART is of optimal quality. Near the time of egg retrieval, ovaries can be enlarged and tender, which can make intercourse uncomfortable.

Will scar tissue around my ovaries make it impossible to retrieve oocytes?

No, the oocyte can usually be retrieved by transvaginal aspiration even when the ovaries are covered with scar tissue. In rare cases, scarring pulls the ovaries out of the normal position. This condition can be identified with ultrasound before ART is undertaken.

How much activity is recommended after ET?

We recommend a fairly quiet 24 hours after ET. Thereafter, most patients resume their normal routines. Strenuous exercise, running, etc. should be avoided until a pregnancy test has been performed.

After embryo transfer, how long must we wait until we have intercourse without risk to the embryo?

No one knows for sure. We recommend abstinence for minimum of 48 hours after transfer.



Progress with PGD for Sickle Cell prevention
Studies in Denmark and Belgium.

Good IVF success rates after single embryo transfers
Transferring one IVF embryo, followed by a second, is almost as likely to result in a pregnancy as transferring two at a time.

IUI workshop
At University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital

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